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Human Anatomy and Physiology Basics

Categories Human Anatomy and Physiology

Anatomy is the study of the structure of the body and the physical relationships involved between body systems.
Physiology is the study of how the systems of the bodywork, and the ways in which their integrated cooperation maintains life and health of the individual.
For humans, the anatomical position has a person standing erect, with feet facing forward, the arms at the sides, palms of the hands facing inferior, and fingers pointing straight down.

Levels of structural organization:

Levels of structural organization

The human body has several systems, which work interdependently carrying out specific functions

  • The cardiovascular system
  • The lymphatic system
  • The nervous system
  • The endocrine system
  • The respiratory system
  • The digestive system
  • The urinary system
  • The musculoskeletal system
  • The reproductive system.

Homeostasis is a tendency to equilibrium or stability in the normal physiological states of the organisms. Homeostasis is maintained by control systems that detect and respond to changes in the internal environment.

Descriptive terms used in Anatomy:
Medial – Structure is nearer to the midline
Lateral – Structure is further from the midline or at the side of the body
Proximal – Nearer to a point of attachment of a limb, or origin of a body part
Distal – Further from a point of attachment of a limb, or origin of a body part
Anterior or Ventral – Part of the body being described is nearer the front of the body
Posterior or Dorsal – Part of the body being described is nearer the back of the body
Superior – Structure nearer the head
Inferior – Structure further from the head

Book Recommendations:
Anatomy and Physiology

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